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GTZ - TERNA Wind Energy Programme

On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH supports, the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO) in the planning of a grid connected wind farm in the range of 50-60 MW. The activities are carried out within the framework of the GTZ TERNA Wind Energy Programme (

The cooperation began at the end of 2004. GTZ activities comprise advice in site selection, wind measurements and the evaluation of the wind potentials and the selected sites. In addition, feasibility studies will be undertaken. Additional capacity building in form of on-the-job training and seminars are undertaken in cooperation with the Austrian Development Agency (ADA) GmbH.

A strong argument for the utilisation of wind power is the evidence that the highest wind speeds are expected during the dry season which makes wind power suitable to match seasonal imbalances in the availability of the country's hydropower resource (approximately 95% of Ethiopia's electric power generation is based on hydro).

Indications for reasonable wind regimes in several parts of the country are promising, primarily in the East and the North. Currently, wind measurements are carried out at 8 different sites in the country which are all near EEPCO's interconnected grid. In Mekelle, one of the measurement sites in the North of the country, annual average wind speeds of more than 8 m/s at a height of 40m are expected.

For further information on the potential of wind energy in Ethiopia (project appraisal report), see the Download Section at the TERNA web site (


»Within the framework of the TERNA wind energy programm of GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ GmbH) a site selection mission was carried out in Ethiopia. The project in Ethiopia is executed jointly with EEPCo - Ethiopian Electric Power Company and co-finanzed by the Austrian Development Agency (ADA).
By end of February 2005, 11 wind measuring stations were installed at suitable sites for a wind park of approx. 50 MW. Both 10 m and 30 m towers were used; the first results are promising. After 6 months the best three sites will be selected for further studies.«
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reported by B. Jargstorf, Factor 4 Energy Projects GmbH


Wind data

Local Fabrication and Sub-assembly of Low Cost Small Scale Wind Turbines

By Tefera Mamo Huluka (read more about the InWEnt training)

The purpose of the profile is to provide a survey of the present status of African rural energy requirement, viability of alternative energy generation projects, and future potential of various types and sizes of wind turbines that might be used to help and meet future needs and demands of rural African community. Also discussed, are various possible applications of such small scale wind power generating turbines, as well as viability hindrances and problems, performance characteristics, and adopted system designs of the selected wind turbines.

It is also emphasised, that wind is a clean, replenish able source of energy, and though it is intermittent and relatively dilute in nature as compared to fossil fuels, it constitutes a large, particularly untapped energy resource. It has been also tried to show that, there are many possible ways of extracting useful energy from the wind. For instance, the mechanical power derived from such small scale wind turbines, which might vary in size from two meters to twelve meters in diameter, can be used to drive electrical generators, water pumps or air compressors, or perform other useful work.

The largest anticipated wind powered units of current world design could be large enough, but the type selected for African rural development could be small, locally assembled units, low cost standard at the beginning of the project implementation stage. They are limited to an electrical generating capacity of a few kilowatts and, and if intended for water pumping, might be limited with the capacity of the water reservoir the community could have or build to store water for their cattle and small size agricultural irrigation implement. The viability of such project proposal is not only dependent on governmental and international aids, but there must be organised strong professionals and rural community involvement. It is intended to show that, the economic viability of such small scale wind turbine projects should not only considered the costs and technological reliability, but also the lifetime advantage, costs and prices of energy derived from such competing energy sources, in addition to that, the magnitude and time distribution of wind velocities at specific geographical chosen locations should be worked out for particular applications.

Current research in the African energy sector shows that only 15-20% of the total population in the region is able to get power from the conventional power sources; the remaining population depends on biomass energy, and deplete the natural forest resources, and destroy the regional weather conditions, which leads Africa to unexpected ecological devastation and surely has an impact on the remaining world environmental catastrophe. Because of such indigenous problems, such locally assembled low cost small scale wind turbine might be a good solution to help the rural community and motivate the young unemployed professionals to involve on agricultural sectors for collateral benefits, by using wind driven power units, such as water pumps for agricultural application purposes.

In regard to present African energy consumption, about 85% of the conventionally generated electrical power is used for residential application and small businesses for the production of consumables, only 15% of the total generated electrical power is used in the industrial sectors for the production of the remaining requirements. Which shows how the continent is in difficulty for further development in all directions and tied to the international aid for the past two decades.

Therefore, when a regional energy development aid is discussed, the rural energy sector should be considered, because of the essential power source deficiency, to change the very difficult African rural life. Thus alternative energy sources, such as wind- and/or solar-energy could be the decisive driving force to support the daily life of the rural community. In order to materialise such premature ideas, the proposal should be discussed between professionals to simplify viability and categorise it into real workable phases. During the implementation of such small development project, so much devotion and patience, due to hindrances one might face from various directions. Then, in the first phase, many professionals should involve to investigate the types of wind turbines to be adopted for local application. In the second phase concentrate on the fabrication of the prototype wind turbine for pumping water from rivers and water wells. In the third phase, deal with the fabrication of sub-assembled wind driven electrical power generators to show African decision makers and development donors, that the viability of the proposal and alternatives to help African rural community. download full report (65 kB PDF) contact